A Primer for Preschooler Safety Your little ones can learn a lot about safety if you take some time to teach them. Here's an ABC that you and your children can recite together. Biting Young children may bite others out of frustration or stress, or because they feel powerless. Infants and toddlers often bite as a way of exploring their world. Tinea Infections (Ringworm) Detailed information on the most common types of ringworm, including diagnosis and treatment Stuttering Stuttering may occur in a child with normal developmental speech problems who is pressured to speak better. The child's struggle to improve speech actually makes the problem worse. Autism Spectrum Disorder A child with autism appears to live in his or her own world, showing little interest in others and a lack of social awareness. Learning Disorders Learning disorders are sometimes called learning disabilities. Most children with learning disorders have normal intelligence, but they have difficulty with reading, math, or another academic area. School Refusal School phobia can be seen in young children going to school for the first time, in older children who fear a bully or mean teacher, and in children who are anxious about leaving their parents. Urinary Incontinence in Children Enuresis is the medical term for bedwetting, or accidental urination in children who should be able to control their bladder. Girls usually have bladder control before boys do. The diagnosis of enuresis is for girls older than 5 and for boys older than 6. Kyphosis Kyphosis is a forward curvature of the spine. It is a type of spinal deformity and should not be confused with poor posture. Watch That Backpack Load Most children rely on backpacks to carry books and supplies to and from school and activities. But a backpack that’s too heavy or doesn’t fit right can cause harm. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children ADHD is a behavior disorder marked by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. Scoliosis in Children Detailed information on scoliosis, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment Thumb Sucking Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5. Hypothyroidism in Children Congenital hypothyroidism occurs in about one in 3,500 to 4,000 live births and is about two times more common in girls than boys. Newborn screenings can lead to earlier treatment and reduce the risk for developmental delay. Graves’ Disease (Hyperthyroidism) in Children The most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the U.S. is an autoimmune disorder called Graves’ disease. Children can develop Graves’ disease, although it's less common in kids than adults. Achalasia in Children Living with Aplastic Anemia Encopresis Detailed information on encopresis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment Fluency Disorder A person with fluency disorder has trouble speaking in a fluid or flowing way. They may repeat parts of words (stutter) or speak fast and jam words together (clutter). Cochlear Implant Surgery A cochlear implant is a small electronic device implanted in the brain that may help people with severe hearing loss hear again. Language Disorders in Children A child with a language disorder may have a difficult time understanding written and spoken words and trouble speaking. Speech Sound Disorders in Children A child with a speech sound disorder may have trouble saying certain sounds and words beyond the age expected.