Electrocardiogram An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a simple and fast procedure that is used to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart, which is measured in "waves." Variations in the waves may indicate problems with the heart. Exercise Electrocardiogram An exercise ECG is a simple and fast procedure that is used to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart's response to stress or exercise. Echocardiogram An echocardiogram is a procedure in which ultrasonic sound waves are used to assess the heart's function and structures. Exercise Echocardiogram An exercise echocardiogram is a procedure in which ultrasound, or sound wave technology, is used to asses the heart's response to stress or exercise. Dobutamine Stress Echocardiogram A dobutamine stress echocardiogram is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravenous medication called dobutamine is used when an exercise stress test is not recommended. Dobutamine mimics the effects of exercise on the heart. Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac catheterization is a procedure in which a catheter is moved through a blood vessel to the heart in order to better diagnose coronary heart disease, valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure and other heart conditions. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), Coronary Angioplasty, and Stent Placement During percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), a special catheter (long hollow tube) is inserted into coronary arteries that are blocked as a result of coronary artery disease (CAD), restoring arterial blood flow to the heart tissue without open-heart surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG) Coronary artery bypass surgery is performed to treat a blockage or narrowing of one or more of the coronary arteries, thus restoring the blood supply to the heart muscle. Carotid Endarterectomy/Carotid Artery Stenting Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) may be performed to treat a blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries, thus improving blood supply to the brain. Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is a procedure currently being used on selected patients who are at high risk for surgery. Carotid Artery Duplex Scan A carotid artery duplex scan is used to assess blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries of the neck and/or the branches of the carotid artery. Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Magnetic resonance angiography – also called a magnetic resonance angiogram or MRA – is a type of MRI that looks specifically at the body’s blood vessels. Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) CT angiography is a type of medical exam that combines a CT scan with an injection of a special dye to produce pictures of blood vessels and tissues in a part of your body.