Understanding Obesity In many ways, obesity is a puzzling disease. How the body regulates weight and body fat is not well understood. Obesity & Other Health Problems Obesity puts you at risk for other health conditions, from type 2 diabetes to sleep apnea and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Treating Obesity Weight loss is the goal in obesity treatment. Your treatment depends on your age, health, medical history—and how much weight you need to lose. Deciding on Surgery Bariatric surgery should be used only in select cases. This is major surgery, sometimes requiring that your bowel be cut and rearranged.