What is rhinitis?
Rhinitis is when a reaction occurs that causes a stuffy nose, runny nose, sneezing, and itching. Most types of rhinitis are caused by an inflammation and lead to symptoms in the eyes, ears, or throat. There are several types of rhinitis. The most common types of rhinitis are:
Acute rhinitis, which is often caused by a viral illness
Allergic rhinitis (can be seasonal or year round)
Allergic rhinitis is caused when allergens in the air trigger the release of histamine in the nose and sinuses. Histamine causes itching, swelling, and fluid to build up in the fragile linings of the nasal passages, sinuses, and eyelids.
What causes rhinitis?
The most common causes of rhinitis are:
Pollen given off by trees, grass, and weeds
Fumes and odors
Extreme temperature or changes in temperature
Certain medicines and overuse of topical nose sprays
Changes in the environment
Irritants such as strong odors and tobacco smoke
Certain foods or spices
Who is at risk for rhinitis?
People with asthma are at a higher risk for rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is a common problem that may be linked to asthma. But this link is not fully understood. Experts think that since rhinitis makes it hard to breathe through the nose, it's harder for the nose to work normally. Breathing through the mouth does not warm, filter, or humidify the air before it enters the lungs. This can make asthma symptoms worse.
Asthma and allergies are also caused by many of the same chemical triggers in the body.
Controlling allergic rhinitis may help control asthma in some people.
What are the symptoms of rhinitis?
Symptoms of rhinitis include:
Itchy nose, throat, eyes, and ears
Clear drainage from the nose
Ear infections that keep coming back
Breathing through the mouth
How is rhinitis diagnosed?
Most often, the diagnosis is made by your healthcare provider based on a full health history and physical exam. In addition to the above signs, the healthcare provider may find:
How is rhinitis treated?
Staying away from the allergens that are causing the problem is the best treatment. Sometimes it can be hard to stay away from triggers (including allergens), such as pollens. The symptoms of rhinitis sometimes look like other conditions or health problems. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
Treatments for rhinitis may include:
Can I prevent rhinitis?
Preventive measures depend on what triggers your rhinitis. These can include:
Staying away from areas where there is heavy dust, mites, or molds
Not being around pets
Staying away from what you know you are allergic to, or what triggers your rhinitis
Controls in your environment, such as air conditioning during pollen season
Staying away from people who are smoking
Staying away from strong odors and irritants when possible
Using nose sprays only for the prescribed length of time
Key points about rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis is a reaction that happens in the eyes, nose, and throat when allergens in the air trigger histamine to be released in the body.
Some of the most common causes of allergic rhinitis are pollen, dust mites, mold, cockroach waste, animal dander
Nonallergic rhinitis is inflammation in the nose, eyes, and throat from nonallergic sources such as fumes and odors, hormonal changes, and smoke.
Symptoms of rhinitis include sneezing, stuffy and runny nose, nosebleeds, and itchy throat, eyes, and ears.
Treatment may include medicines, allergy shots, and surgery for some health problems.
Preventive measures for rhinitis include staying away from what you are allergic to and avoiding your triggers.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.