Bone Cancer The two most common types of bone cancer in children are osteogenic carcinoma and Ewing sarcoma. Osteogenic sarcoma usually occurs in the long bones and pelvis. Ewing sarcoma, which can also involve muscle and soft tissue, usually results from a rearrangement of chromosomes. Brain Cancer Brain tumors are the most common type of solid tumor in children. Most primary brain tumors do not spread beyond the brain and are either benign or cancerous. Eye Cancer Retinoblastoma is a rare cancer of the retina that occurs in childhood. It is caused by mutations in a gene on chromosome 13. Kidney Cancer Wilms tumor, also called nephroblastoma, is the most common type of kidney cancer in children. In most cases, it is detected by age 3. Leukemia Most childhood leukemias are acquired genetic diseases. This means that the gene mutations and chromosome abnormalities that cause leukemia occur by chance, not through inheritance. Liver Cancer Hepatoblastoma is a very rare cancerous tumor that originates in the liver. It primarily affects children from infancy to about age 5 Lymphoma Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are two types of cancer that affect the lymphatic system. Skin Cancer Skin cancer is rare in children, but youngsters still need to be protected against the sun's ultraviolet rays. It's also important to watch out for any changes in moles your child has. Soft Tissue Cancer Rhabdomyosarcoma is one type of soft tissue cancer that occurs in children. It typically affects people ages 2 to 25, but it can appear at any age. Other Cancers Learn more about other types of cancer that occur in children, such as germ cell tumors and neuroblastomas.