Overview You may be at greater risk for urethral cancer if you have repeated urinary tract infections, other cancers of the urinary tract, or an infection with the human papillomavirus. Understanding Your Diagnosis To help make the diagnosis, your doctor will take down your medical history, give you a physical exam, and order a urine test and cystoscopy. Deciding on Treatment Your treatment depends on your age and health, and the extent of the disease. You may need surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. Managing Side Effects Side effects of cancer treatment vary from person to person. You may have no side effects or several. Your doctor or cancer nurse can suggest ways to ease any side effects that you experience.