Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two most common conditions of COPD. Anatomy of the Respiratory System The respiratory system includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs. Chronic Bronchitis Chronic bronchitis is a long-term inflammation of the bronchi, which results in increased production of mucus. Pulmonary Emphysema Emphysema is a chronic lung condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged or destroyed. This damage is irreversible.