Absence Seizures Absence seizures are seizures that last just a few seconds, and are characterized by a blank or "absent" stare. They're also sometimes called petit mal seizures. Brain Abscess A brain abscess is a rare infection in the brain caused by viruses or bacteria. Symptoms include fever, severe headache, and nausea or vomiting. Encephalitis in Children Encephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell, which leads to changes in the child's neurological condition, including mental confusion and seizures. Seizures and Epilepsy in Children A seizure occurs when parts of the brain receive a burst of abnormal electrical signals that temporarily interrupts normal electrical brain function. Guillain-Barre Syndrome in Children Guillain-Barré syndrome is a neurological disorder in which a child's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The disorder usually occurs a few days or weeks after the child has had symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infection. Intraventricular Hemorrhage If your baby is born prematurely, there are many worries that likely go through your mind. One of the things that can happen is bleeding on the brain. Read on to learn about this and what doctors can do help your baby. Meningitis in Children Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacteria or viruses are the more common causes. Neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor that begins in nerve tissue of infants and very young children. The abnormal cells are often found in the nerve tissue that is present in the unborn baby and later develops into a detectable tumor. Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of disorders. These diseases are life-long conditions that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and skeletal bones. Neurogenic Bladder in Children In children a neurogenic bladder may be secondary to a birth defect such as spina bifida or it may be acquired as the result of a different problem. Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) The head is one of the most fragile parts on your baby, especially after birth. Sometimes, damage can occur, particularly if your baby is born prematurely. One type of brain damage is called periventricular leukomalacia. Read on to better understand what this diagnosis means for you and your baby, and what doctors can do to help. Reye Syndrome Reye syndrome is a rare condition that can affect children between ages 4 and 12. The more common cases occur in conjunction with a previous viral infection, such as the flu or chicken pox. Status Epilepticus A seizure that lasts at least 30 minutes is called status epilepticus, or a prolonged seizure. This is a medical emergency that may lead to brain damage or death. Stroke in Children Stroke is much more common in adults than children, but children get strokes, too. The good news is that a child has a better ability to recover from stoke than an adult because a child's brain is still developing. Tourette's Disorder A person with Tourette's disorder develops multiple repeated tics. The tics are abrupt, purposeless, and involuntary vocal sounds or muscular jerks.