Tests & Procedures Cardiovascular The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as defined by the American Heart Association, include coronary heart disease (coronary artery disease, ischemic heart disease); stroke (brain attack); high blood pressure (hypertension); and rheumatic heart disease. Each year in the US, cardiovascular diseases top the list of most serious health problems. Learn about the tests and procedures that are used to diagnose heart problems. Gastroenterology Each year, millions of Americans are diagnosed with digestive disorders, ranging from the occasional upset stomach to the more life-threatening colorectal cancer. They encompass disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Reaching a diagnosis requires a thorough and accurate medical history and physical examination. You may need to undergo more diagnostic evaluations, including lab tests, endoscopic procedures, and imaging techniques. Gynecology Many of the conditions that affect gynecological, reproductive, and sexual health may be detected early, which, in most cases, provides for a more positive prognosis and successful treatment. In this section, you will find information to help you learn more about gynecological tests and procedures including an overview of the procedure, reasons for the procedure, risks of the procedure, and what to do before, during, and after the procedure. Neurological Before a treatment or rehabilitation plan can be established for neurologic conditions, your doctor must first determine the reason for, and source of, a condition. There are various types of tests and procedures used to diagnose and treat neurologic conditions. In this section, you will learn about these procedures, including an overview of the procedure, reasons for the procedure, risks of the procedure, and what to do before, during, and after the procedure. Orthopaedic Orthopaedics is the branch of medicine concerned with diseases, injuries, and conditions of the musculoskeletal system, or the body's muscles and skeleton, and including the joints, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. Your doctor will complete a medical history and physical examination when evaluating a possible orthopaedic condition. Learn what happens during diagnostic and surgical orthopaedic procedures…ranging from x-rays to hip replacement surgery Pulmonary Respiratory disorders, or lung diseases, are disorders such as asthma, pneumonia, tuberculosis, lung cancer, and others. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, each year more than 126,000 US adults die of lung disease. Learn about the various tests and procedures used to help detect lung problems. Urology Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract in both genders, and with the genital tract or reproductive system in the male. Nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with the kidneys. The most serious of kidney and urinary tract diseases includes end-stage renal disease (ESRD); kidney stone disease; urinary incontinence; benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); interstitial cystitis; urinary tract infection; and polycystic kidney disease. In this section, you'll find information about procedures used to diagnose kidney and urinary diseases.